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Subhash Chandra Bose is one of the most dynamic leaders of India’s struggle of independence. He is popularly known as Netaji. He was born in Cuttack, in Orissa on January 23, 1897 to Janaki Nath Bose and Prabhavati Devi. His father was a famous lawyer and his mother was a religious lady. Among the fourteen siblings, he was the ninth child. During his college days, he gradually developed nationalistic temperament, and became socially and politically aware.
He found Britishers’ insults to Indians in public places as offensive. In December 1921, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was arrested and imprisoned for organising a boycott of the celebrations to mark the Prince of Wales’s visit to India. Bose left for England in 1919 to appear for Indian Civil Service Examination. Right from his childhood he was a bright student and was a topper in the matriculation examination from the whole of Calcutta province. He graduated from the Scottish Church College in Kolkata, West Bengal with a First Class degree in Philosophy. Influenced by the teachings of Swami Vivekananda, he was known for his patriotic zeal as a student.
He went to England to accomplish his parents’ desire to appear in the Indian Civil Services. In 1920 he appeared for the competitive examination and stood fourth in the order of merit. Deeply moved by the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre in Punjab, Subhash Chandra Bose left his Civil Services apprenticeship midway and returned to India.
Early Life of Subhash Chandra Bose
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, popularly known by the name of ‘Netaji’ (Respected Leader), was born to Prabhavati Devi and Janakinath Bose on January 23 in 1897 in Odisha. He took admission into the Protestant European School which was run by the Baptist Mission. He did B A in Philosophy from the Presidency College in Calcutta, and was later expelled for assaulting Professor for the latter’s anti-India remarks. After the incident, Bose was considered as one of the rebel-Indians.
During his college days, he gradually developed nationalistic temperament, and became socially and politically aware. He found Britishers’ insults to Indians in public places as offensive. In December 1921, Bose was arrested and imprisoned for organising a boycott of the celebrations to mark the Prince of Wales’s visit to India. Bose left for England in 1919 to appear for Indian Civil Service Examination.
Political Life of Subhash Chandra Bose
After a few years, Bose returned to India as he resigned from his civil service job in April 1921, and later joined the Indian National Congress to fight for the independence of India. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose started the newspaper known as ‘Swaraj’, and took charge of publicity for the Bengal Provincial Congress Committee. In 1923, Bose was elected as the President of All India Youth Congress and as the Secretary of Bengal State Congress.
He was also editor of the newspaper called ‘Forward’, founded by his mentor Chittaranjan Das, and he served as the CEO of the Calcutta Municipal Corporation. By December 1927, Netaji Bose was appointed as the General Secretary of the INC. In November 1934, he wrote the first part of his book ‘The Indian Struggle’, which was about nationalism and India’s independence movement during 1920–1934, but the British government banned the book. By 1938, he agreed to accept nomination as the Congress President, and presided over the Haripur session. However, due to his strong differences with Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, he resigned in 1939.
Subhash Chandra Bose’s Role in India’s Independence
Subhash Chandra Bose was always in favour of armed revolution in order to expel the Britishers from India. During the time when the Second World War took place, Bose revived the Indian National Army (INA) with the help of the Imperial Japanese Army, and also founded an Indian Radio Station called ‘Azad Hind Radio’. A few years later, he travelled to Japan, where more soldiers and civilians joined the INA. Even when faced with military reverses, Bose was able to maintain support for the Azad Hind movement.
In Europe, S C Bose sought help from Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini for the liberation of India. Bose had struck an alliance with Japan and Germany as he felt that his presence in the East would help India in the freedom struggle against the British.
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose’s famous quotes
Subhash Chandra Bose’s most famous slogans/quotes are “Give me blood and I will give you freedom”, Dilli Chalo (“On to Delhi)!” This was the call he used to give to the INA army to encourage them. “Jai Hind”, or, “Glory to India!” was another slogan used by him, and later adopted by the Government of India and the Indian Armed Forces.
Another slogan coined by him was “Ittefaq, Etemad, Qurbani” (Urdu for “Unity, Agreement, Sacrifice”). INA also used the slogan “Inquilab Zindabad“, which was coined by Maulana Hasrat Mohani. In July 1944, in a speech broadcast by the Azad Hind Radio from Singapore, Bose addressed Mahatma Gandhi as the “Father of the Nation.
Facts and Information about Subhash Chandra Bose
|Born||23 January 1897|
|Place of Birth||Cuttack, Orissa Division, Bengal Province, British India|
|Died||August 18, 1945 (aged 48), Taipei (Taihoku), Japanese Taiwan|
|Spouse Name||or companion, Emilie Schenkl (secretly married without ceremony or witnesses in 1937, unacknowledged publicly by Bose|
|Chidren||Anita Bose Pfaff|
|Education||Alma mater University of Calcutta and University of Cambridge. He continued his studies at this school which was run by the Baptist Mission up to 1909 and then shifted to the Ravenshaw Collegiate School. The day Subhas was admitted to this school, Beni Madhab Das, the headmaster, understood how brilliant and scintillating his genius was. After securing the second position in the matriculation examination in 1913, he got admitted to the Presidency College where he studied briefly|
|Profession before joining politics||He then joined the Indian National Congress and worked under the leadership of Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, who later became his political guru. He opposed the Dominion Status for India declared by the Congress under the guidance of the Motilal Nehru Committee. They were in favor of complete independence and nothing else. In 1930, during the Civil Disobedience he was sent to jail and released only after the Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed in 1931.|
|Known for contribution as||Figure of Indian independence movement|
|Political Career||Indian National Congress 1921 -1940,|
Death of Subhash Chandra Bose
Subhash Chandra Bose is believed to have died in a plane crash in Taiwan in 1945, but his body was never found. There have been several theories regarding his disappearance. The government had set up a number of committees to investigate the case and come out with the truth.