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The name is derived from the Mughal ruler, Aurangazeb. Its ancient history dates back up to the eras of Buddhism, but the modern history of Aurangabad is traced back to 1610. The Buddhist caves in Aurangabad and Ellora are the clear evidence of strong Buddhism influence and influx around the city in earlier times.
A prime minister of the Muslim Kingdom of Ahmednagar, Malik Ambar established a town at a village called Khirki. Later, his son Fateh Khan named the town as Fatehpur in 1626. Mohammad Bin Tughlaq tried to switch over the capital of his Delhi sultanate to Fatehpur in 14th century keeping in mind the strategic location of the town. The town was at the centre of India, and the region was considered the safest from the marauding armies of the Afghan and Central Asian raiders.
When Aurangazeb took over the Deccan kingdoms, he changed the name of the town to Aurangabad in 1653. Aurangazeb used the town as the strategic point to suppress the rising power of Shivaji. Aurangabad was taken over by the Nizam of Hyderabad after the death of Aurangazeb in 1707 that retained control till it was merged with Maharashtra in 1956.
The city was founded in 1610 by Malik Ambar, the Prime Minister of Murtaza Nizam Shah the II, on the site of a village called ‘Khidki’ or window. He established his capital here, and the men of his army raised dwellings for themselves around it. His son Fate Khan changed the name of the capital to Fate Nagar. In 1653 Prince Aurangzeb son of Shah Jahan the emperor of Delhi was appointed Viceroy of the Dekhan. He made Fatehnagar his capital and called it Aurangabad. He erected palaces and other buildings for himself and nobles, surrounding the whole with the wall which still remains. After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, Aurangabad ceased to be held by the Delhi sovereigns.
However, Aurangabad still remained the Chief town of one of the Hyderabad Dists. During the reign of Nizam-ul-Mulk Asif Jah son of Gaziuddeen the capital was transferred to Hyderabad in about 1726. In 1853 Aurangabad witnessed a confrontation contingent troops and a body of Arab mercenaries belonging to Mansing Rao Raja of Dawalgaon. In the first week of October this year, Brig Mane Commanding the station rescued the Raja from the Arabs who had put the Raja in the captivity in Jasvantpura at present known as Roshangate. In the year 1857, there was an internal disturbance within the local British cavalry and infantry units.
The 1st and 3rd cavalry and 2nd infantry units believed to be due to the influence of general reprising among the popular of India against the British Rule. General Woodburn was sent from Poona with the forces consisting of 2 troops, a battery of European artillery and 25th Bombay Infantry to control the situation. Ultimately after a fierce battle, General Woodburn succeeded to control the uprising among the units. Subsequently, the contingents stationed at Aurangabad remained loyal to the British Rule.
The current day Aurangabad offers a wonderful opportunity to step back to past history. Ajanta and Ellora caves and Bibi-Ka-Makbara bring back the visitors to the past history of the town.
Aurangabad is sometimes called the “Chittorgarh of Bihar” because of its largely Rajput Population of the Suryavanshi lineage.Since the first Indian general elections in 952,Aurangabad has only ever elected Rajput representatives.Other family clansrepresented inAurangabad include the Mauryans, Guptas and the Gahadavalas (locally spelt “Gadhwal,Gaharwal in Bihar”).
In ancient times, Aurangabad was located in the Mahajanapadakingdom of Magadh (1200 – 322 BCE). The ancient rulers of the townincluded Bimbisara (late 5th centuryBCE),Ajatashatru(early 4th century BCE), Chandragupta Maurya (321 – 298 BCE) and Ashoka(268 – 232 BCE).
During the rule of Sher Shah Suri (1486 – 1545 CE), Aurangabad became strategically important as part of the Rohtas Sirkar(district). After the death of Sher Shah Suri Aurangabad fell under the rule of Akbar. The Afghan upsurge in the area wassuppressed by Todar Mal. Some elements of Afghan architecture remain.
After the downfall of the Mughal Empire, Aurangabad was ruled by the zamindars. the wealthy land owners, including those of Deo, Kutumba, Mali, Pawai, Chandragarh, and Siris. The zamindars resisted British rule. For example, Fateh Narayan Singh of Deo, descendent of Shakti Singh, supported Kunwar Singh against the British.
In 1865, Bihar District was separated from Patna District. Aurangabad was made a subdivision of Bihar district. Stement wasthe first subdivisional officer of Aurangabad subdivision. The first Member of Parliament from the district was the former Chief Minister of Unified Bihar, Satyendra Narayan Singh (Chhote Saheb).
On 26 January 1973, Aurangabad district, Bihar was created (government notification number 07/11-2071-72 dated 19 January 1973). K. A. H. Subramanyam was the first district magistrate and Surjit Kumar Saha was the sub-divisional officer.
Historical places in Aurangabad
- Ajanta & Ellora Caves – To Seek Enlightenment
- Bibi Ka Maqbara – A Replica Of Taj Mahal
- Daulatabad Fort – One Of The Seven Wonders Of Maharashtra
- Grishneshwar Temple – For A Divine Holiday
- Pitalkhora Caves – Buddhist Architecture
- Siddharth Garden and Zoo – A Famous Picnic Spot
- Shivaji Maharaj Museum – Relish The History
- Goga Baba Hill – For Some Peace & Tranquility
- Sunheri Mahal – The Purest Form Of Royal Architecture
- Gul Mandi – For Shopaholics
- Bani Begum Garden – Marvel At The Mughal Architecture
- Panchakki – An Ideal Hangout Spot For Picnickers
- Khuldabad – The Valley Of Saints
- Salim Ali Lake – Ideal For Bird-Watching
- Bhadra Maruti – An Ancient Temple
- Himroo Factory – For Ancient Handweaving
- Dargah Of Pir İsmail – In The Memory Of Pir Ismail
- Killa Arak – The Throne Room Of Aurangzeb
- Jayakwadi Dam – A beautiful sightseeing spot
- Aurangabad Caves – For A Religious Tour
- Connaught Place – For A shopping Spree
- Jama Mosque – A Religious Structure
- Dargah Baba Shah Musafir – In Memory Of Baba Shah Musafir
- Himayat Bagh – A Natural Wonder
- Naukhanda Palace – An Ancient Architecture
- Zainuddin Shirzai’s Maqbara – An Historic Affair
- Lonar Crater Lake – Serene Spot
- Parli Vaidyanath Jyotirlinga Temple – Seek Blessings
- Prozone Mall – Shop Till You Drop
- Tulja Bhavani Temple – A Blend Of Architecture & Religion